Excerpted from:

Feeding the Red Dragon:

The Case Against Canada's Aid to Communist China

Chapter 6

THE DRAGON'S GRIP

THE PERSECUTION OF CHRISTIANS IN RED CHINA

Copyright 1996 by Gilbert Gendron - Reproduced by permission of the author.

Htmlized by Citizens Against Communist Chinese Propaganda
Chapter 6
THE DRAGON'S GRIP
THE PERSECUTION OF CHRISTIANS IN RED CHINA
The PRC government recognizes five religions: Buddhism, Daoism, Islam, Protestantism usually called "Christianity" by the authorities and Catholicism. Only about 5% of the PRC's population belong to Christian churches according to official data. "In June of 1992, the State Statistics Bureau [...] claimed Christians now numbered 63 million", a minute figure by China's standard, albeit one which represented "an increase of more than 1,000 percent on their previous official statistics."[l ] However, some observers estimate that there might actually be as many as 100 million Christians in mainland China. They believe that Christianity in all its forms is the fastest growing religion in the PRC, a growth taking place almost entirely outside the strictures of the regime's policy. In fact, Marxism being totally discredited in Red China except in the ranks of the nomenklatura, people cannot find spiritual solace in the quest for money sanctioned by the regime and convert to Christ in large numbers.
While the communist elite shows no mercy to Tibetan Buddhism, Christianity is particularly scorned by this select group. In December 1993 "official newspapers described holidays such as Christmas as 'spiritual pollution' from the West" and State Education Commission bureaucrats "prohibited Chinese university students from observing Christmas, labeling it a 'Western cultural influence'".[2] In effect, mainland China's masters are afraid of Christianity: "Any ideology other than communism and any authority outside the Chinese government is viewed as a threat to security of the Chinese state in its present form. [...] The history of religious activity in China, and that of 'western' religions in particular, reinforces the official view that 'hostile elements from abroad', in conjunction with Chinese dissidents, intend to use religion to destabilize China, then overthrow its legitimate government. "[3]
The situation of Christians in mainland China is today very similar to what they experienced between the communist victory and the Cultural Revolution. From 1949 to 1966, control and repression were the tenets of Beijing's policy. During the Cultural Revolution, the state made a naked attempt at eradicating all religious belief or activity; church properties were confiscated or destroyed on a large scale. The anti-religion policy was rescinded in 1979 and state-controlled churches were permitted to operate again. After the Tiananmen Square massacre (June 1989), repression grew heavier against those Christians who were shunning governmental supervision. In early 1994, apparently laxer regulations were implemented but brought about more repression because the authorities are deeply distrusted by most Christians.
Considering the monstrous apparatus which manages religious affairs in Red China, the distrust is well-founded. The Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party has set up "United Front Work Departments" (UFWDs) through which party leaders deal with religious matters at the central, provincial and local levels. As for the state, it is also involved through a "Religious Affairs Bureau" (RAB) which reports to the State Council. As is the case with UFWDs, the Central RAB has provincial and, in some cases, local ramifications, but all UFWDs are more powerful than RABs with regard to policy-related decisions. Monitoring the two main Christian bodies is the purview of the RABs.
On the Protestant side, the RABs over- see the "Three-Self Patriotic Movement" (TSPM). "Shortly after the founding of New China," reads an official PRC document, "Chinese Christians launched the [TSPM] which finally eliminated imperialist influence on the church." [4] The TSPM is supposed to federate all denominations. Worshippers are expected to ultimately "give up theoretical, doctrinal and liturgical differences to join a Chinese 'post-denominational Christian church" because "such differences should have no meaning in the context of socialist solidarity" . [5] There is also a Chinese Christian Council (CCC), made up of Protestant clergymen approved by the authorities. The TSPM and the CCC are collectively called the lianghui or "dual association".
On the Catholic side, the RABs control the Catholic Patriotic Association (CPA), which the regime has organized in 1957 to separate the faithful from the Holy See: "Following the founding of New China, foreign forces continued to make use of the church to interfere in China's internal affairs. The anti-imperialist patriotic movement launched by Chinese Catholics eventually led to the church's independence."[6] In addition, a Conference of Catholic Bishops subservient to Beijing has been created.
This complex structure has been set against an intricate administrative background. In theory, the Constitution of the People's Republic of China permits freedom of belief and prohibits discrimination on the basis of belief or disbelief (Article 36). In reality, the PRC is an atheist state. Thus Communist Party members cannot espouse religious beliefs: "If one chooses to join the party," communist cadre Mo Xiusong said in 1994, "they must understand and believe in the scientific laws of socialism. The first of these scientific laws is atheism. If a party member chooses to believe in religious superstition, he is free to leave the party."[7]
Up to 1994, every Christian congregation had to register with either the TSPM or the CPA. This measure was based on the Constitution: according to Article 36, clause 2, state protection "extends only to 'normal' religious activities and religion cannot be used to 'disrupt social order, impair the health of citizens or interfere with the educational policy of the state.'"[8] Being registered means that a congregation must follow restrictive regulations usually called the "three-self", the "three-fix" and the "ten don'ts". The "three-self" requires that all churches be self-administrating, self-supporting and self-propagating, which implies that they sever foreign connections. According to the "three-fix", all congregations must have a fixed place of worship, an officially-recognized spiritual leader and a determined geographical sphere of activities. The "ten don'ts" include "not preaching to people outside church premises, not engaging in faith healing and exorcism, and not instilling religious thinking in those under eighteen".[9] The authorities are very serious about the enforcement of their cumbersome rules. As noted in a circular issued by the Yongkang RAB in September 1993, "the government determines the nature of anti-Three-Self as anti-Party and anti-Socialist".[10]
The TSPM and the CPA have been designed to stunt the development of Christianity, to be instruments of propaganda abroad and to serve as secular political watchdogs rather than genuine churches at home. Many in the TSPM and CPA personnel are communist agents "who have been trained in religion for the purpose of infiltration".[11 ] A blatant occurrence was reported at Sichuan Catholic Theological College, where a group of seminarians left the institution in April 1994 as a protest against the appointment of a RAB official as deputy rector. Not surprisingly, the government-approved clergy and, of course, the infiltrators often act as stool pigeons for the dreaded Public Security Bureau (PSB). On February 7, 1995, a few hundred Protestants from Jiangsu and Zhejiang Provinces gathered in Huai'an, Jiangsu: "After local TSPM officials notified the PSB, officers beat up the leaders, reserving the more severe beatings as well as the heavy fines for the key figures."[12] Father Xia Z(S)haowu was similarly betrayed: on December 29, 1994, while he was walking with a student along a road in Jiangxi Province, the police arrested them "after the government-approved Bishop in the diocese denounced them to the local [Catholic] patriotic association. [...] As of May 1995, Father Xia was still detained."[13]
TSPM and CPA ecclesiastics are basically the authorities' flunkies. When they feel they do have a vocation, they cause a lot of problems for themselves. What has happened to the Gangwashi Church in Beijing is a case in point. "Gangwashi, an official Three-Self church, has been much in the press since mid-1994 with the news that religious officials were trying to replace the senior pastor, Yang Yudong. The campaign started at least two years earlier, with TSPM officials using as a pretext an unpublished, and possibly non-existent, regulation requiring the retirement of clerics over seventy. In reality, the authorities had become increasingly disturbed at the exponential growth in Gangwashi membership [...]." Pastor Yang already had trouble in 1986 when officials "ordered that Gangwashi not publicize its Christmas service". Toward the end of 1994, he was still resisting the retirement order with his flock's support. "On December 4, 500 riot police, 200 more in plainclothes, and two truckloads of soldiers forcibly removed Yang from the pulpit. He is forbidden to enter Gangwashi; and to make certain he cannot circumvent the order, PSB officers in an unmarked car keep a twenty-four-hour-watch at his house. Li Dequan, head of the church committee, was forced out on Christmas Day 1994, and the committee was dissolved."[14] In 1989, Pastor Li had himself irritated the powers that be when he had "allowed young church members to join the Tiananmen Square democracy movement, where they took part in the massive street marches carrying wooden crosses and banners identifying themselves as Christians".[15]
The story of Bishop K. H. Ting (Ding Guangxun) is also worth telling. The chairman of the puppet TSPM and CCC, Bishop Ting suddenly found a voice of his own. On March 22, 1993 he said that the TSPM and the CCC were receiving "each year well over a thousand appeals for assistance from the grassroots", some dealing with the "refusal to approve venues for normal religious activities" or "the banning of large assemblies". "There are also those which deal with choosing leaders in the church: cadres have their say and the churches can voice no opinion, with the result that persons without religious training, or with bad reputations, or who are not even members of the church have become its leaders", he added. "The authors of our letters are also citizens who should enjoy freedom of religious belief", concluded the bishop. As a result, he lost his seat in the National People's Congress "in an unmistakable sign of official displeasure".[16] Afterwards, he let his name be used in an outrageous propaganda piece published in the April 11, 1994 edition of Beijing Review. If we are to believe the author of the article, Huang Wei, Bishop Ting approved of the state's stringent regulations on religion after all, denied that there were "underground" churches in the PRC and said that he was very glad to participate in communist-controlled public affairs through his membership of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (he has been one of the 26 vice-chairs of the latter's National Committee since 1989).
Widespread reluctance from the burgeoning "underground" or "house'' congregations to register with the CPA or TSPM has prompted the Beijing government to try to upgrade its repressive policy. "The first concrete evidence of the intensified religious crackdown came on January 31, 1994 when Premier Li Peng signed two sets of religious regulations, the first time, in fact, that a Chinese premier signed a religious document. No. 145 On the Management of Places for Religious Activities and No. 144 On the Management of Religious Activities of Foreigners Within Chinese Borders represented first attempts by the central governing body to codify religious restrictions; to provide a legal basis or license for local cadres to crack down on a wide assortment of religious activities; to supply models for codifying local and provincial regulations, which are frequently more stringent than the originals [...]; and to further empower the Public Security Bureau (PSB), that is the police, to intervene in religious affairs through surveillance, extortion and arrests. The two new decrees are regulations, not law, and thus are not subject to appeal in the courts. They offer no protection to alleged religious miscreants or to unofficial religious groups."[17]
Regulation No. 144 bans all missionary activities conducted by foreigners a far-reaching category which includes Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau residents and even PRC citizens residing abroad. All "foreigners" need official permission to attend religious services in mainland China.
On May 1 and 12, 1994 other regulations were added to Red China's pseudo-legal arsenal. Firstly, there were the Registration Procedures for Religious Activities. "Despite appearing to rescind criteria for registration which many church groups found intolerable, such as the requirement that a congregation affiliate with a patriotic association, the regulations actually were designed to circumvent the objections while tightening central control."[18] Among other things, an opinion from the local patriotic association or from the Orwellian "neighborhood committee" has to be attached to all applications and, in any case, the patriotic association is made responsible for the applicants' compliance with the government's various rules. An inescapable stumbling block arises: most of the underground Christian leaders have not been trained nor ordained in approved institutions and can hardly qualify as "Religious Professionals". Secondly, the National People's Congress added new articles to the 1987 Regulations Governing Public Order Offenses, notably making it possible to lay criminal charges against the faithful for "carrying out activities under the name of a social organization without registration" and "disturbing social order".
According to Beijing's propaganda, the measures adopted at the beginning of 1994 amounted to a liberal reform. "Registration is a matter between the church or meeting point and the government. The [directives] do not require the church or meeting point to gain recommendation or recognition from a Three-Self organization or Christian council", declared a repentant Bishop Ting.[l9] Dennis Balcombe, an American missionary who was arrested in 1994, has testified that he has heard a less gentle message from his jailers: "With the authority we have been given on the new directives Li Peng signed into law [sic] on January 31, we are determined to stop all Christian activities not conducted under our Religious Affairs Bureau and the Three-Self Church. We will not only put an end to all religious activities of foreigners, we will mercilessly stamp out the house church movement. "[20]
Although Protestant house congregations are ruthlessly suppressed for instance the home-grown evangelical sect known as the "Shouters"[21] an overview of recent measures taken against the Catholic Church is perhaps more revealing of the viciousness of the PRC's communist leadership. Because the Catholic Church is based in Vatican City, a state which recognizes the Republic of China on Taiwan instead of the PRC, loyal Chinese Catholics are more often than not singled out for the harshest ill-treatment. The faithful are given "the Hobson's choice between loyalty to the Vatican, which brings Chinese repression, and loyalty to the [Beijing-manipulated] Chinese Catholic Church, which separates Chinese Catholics from their co-religionists in the universal church".[22]
Let us begin with a letter sent on July 13, 1992 to the PRC's ambassador to the United States. The author is the Archbishop of St. Paul-Minneapolis, the Most Reverend John R. Roach, the then chairman of the U.S. Catholic Conference's Committee on International Policy. The following is a quite disturbing excerpt: "we understand that a number of Chinese bishops [are] in prison and are being badly treated, and that the body of Bishop Peter Joseph Fan Xueyan (Baoding), who died last April while in police custody at the age of 84, showed signs of brutal treatment. There have been similar reports about the late Bishop Paul Shi Chunjie who died in November of last year, also in police custody."
"I would be very grateful", Archbishop Roach went on, "if you could share with me any information you could obtain about the numbers of Catholic bishops, priests and committed lay persons who are said to be in detention because of their religious practice." No less than 10 detainees all of them bishops were listed below: Peter Chen Jianzhang (Baoding), Julius Jia Zhinguo (Zhen-ding), Joseph Li Side (Tianjin), Liu Difan (Anguo), Peter Liu Guandong (Yixian), Paul Liu Shuhe (auxiliary, Yixian), Casimir Wang Milu (Gansu), James Xie Shiguang (Xiapu), Philip Yang Libo (Lanzhou) and Bartholomew Yu Chengdi (Hanzhong).[23]
It would be known later that Auxiliary Bishop Paul Liu Shuhe had escaped from a detention facility at Easter 1992; he died in hiding on May 2, 1993, at the age of 74. "He was first jailed as a 'counter-revolutionary' from 1958 to 1980, and was then rearrested in 1988 on charges of illegal publishing. He had been secretly consecrated a bishop by the Vatican in 1982."[24]
After two years of "re-education through labor" (laojiao) at a prison farm, Bishop Peter Liu Guandong had been released on May 21, 1992 but, predictably, had remained "under restrictions of movement and association" . [25]
As for Bishop Liu Difan, he would die while in police custody on November 14, 1992: "After his death, the relatives reportedly found that his body was covered with numerous scars, with two unhealed wounds on his back and two more under his left armpit. This led them to strongly doubt the RAB's claim that the bishop had died of high blood pressure and brain embolism, especially since at the time of his arrest [December 1990] he had been in good health. [...] When the bishop's body was brought back home, the authorities wanted to keep his funeral as small an affair as possible, but in the end, 14 underground priests and 3,000 Catholics took part in the ceremony."[26]
On September 28, 1992 Archbishop Roach wrote the ambassador a second letter in which he mentioned that he had "so far received neither acknowledgment nor reply". This reminder was also sent to no avail.
In a statement made public on May 24,1994, Archbishop Roach's successor at the head of the Committee on International Policy, Bishop Daniel P. Reilly, explained very clearly that persecutions had not abated: "Religious believers are subject to continuous harassment and intimidation aimed at assuring state control over unofficial religious activities. [...] In a pattern of repression, bishops, clerics, monks, nuns and lay-people are detained for short periods and released. Others are released from prison only to find themselves confined to nursing homes where they die from mistreatment and even torture. The government reports still other religious prisoners as released only to have them disappear without a trace."
Bishop Reilly quoted alarming words from the exiled bishop of Guangdong, Dominic Tang, S.J.: "The [Communist] party claim extends far beyond the natural demand of governments for loyalty and patriotism. In short, the government claims authority over each Chinese soul. And it reserves its special venom towards those whose rejection of this claim has any institution behind it."[27] At a meeting of the central UFWD held in November 1993, President Jiang Zemin had indeed "informed colleagues that the term 'adaptation of religion to socialist society' meant strengthened legal restraints on religion and the reformation of both institutions and doctrines that contradicted socialist theory and practice. It was the first time since 1949 that doctrine was noted to be within the purview of civil authorities."[28] In another major speech delivered in September 1995, Jiang referred to "an advanced socialist 'spiritual civilization', stating that 'under no circumstances should temporary economic growth be achieved at the expense of culture and ideological progress'."[29]
Bishop Reilly's statement was released in May and, coincidentally, it was during the same month that the central RAB examined the ways and means of making its information system more efficient. Consequently, it "has purchased fax machines for all of its local offices down to the county and municipal levels, which would number more than 2,000. Zhang Shengzuo, the head of the RAB, said that the reason for this is so that important information on local religious activity can be sent as quickly as possible to the central government, thus enabling the authorities to nip unrest in the bud." As China News and Church Report pointed out in its October 7, 1994 issue, this move showed "the determination of the Communist Party to put its expanding communications technology to work as a means of maintaining its grip on power".[30] God only knows whether RABs have been sending roll upon roll of faxes on telephone lines improved thanks to Canadian technology and concessional loans.
Overwhelming evidence substantiates the "pattern of repression" which Bishop Reilly has denounced. This is a list of some of the most shocking events reported in 1994 and 1995: So is life for loyal Catholics in the Chinese proletarian paradise. The "pattern of repression" is so stifling that even the production and circulation of Bibles is tightly controlled. In a document issued in 1994, Beijing's Agency of Information and Publications has laid down detailed, maniacal rules with regard to the printing of the Holy Bible. Firstly, every work must be approved by the central RAB. Secondly, even if the run is for export, special precautions must be taken: "Printing must be done by enterprises designated by the Bureau of Religious Affairs of the State Council, the Customs Head Office and the Agency of Information and Publications for the record. All the products must be shipped outside the country. No copies are allowed within the country for circulation or sale." Thirdly, "printing enterprises are not allowed to accept print jobs of Chinese editions or editions with both Chinese and foreign language texts of the Bible ordered from abroad" although the central RAB may give its approval in some cases. Fourthly, besides the "designated state printers", jobs may done by Nan Ai De Printing Co. Ltd., which "has all along been printing the Chinese edition of the Bible for patriotic Chinese religious organizations". In the fifth place, "the enterprise must designate a person in charge to exercise strict control in accordance with the rules regulating the printing of secret matters". During the process of printing, that person must make sure, among other things, that no rejects "are allowed to leave the print shop". "Extra copies and rejects must be checked against plain paper by a specially designated person and shredded", the communist bureaucrats have spelled out. The Regulations Governing the Printing of the Bible also contain a clause pertaining to legal action: "Those who accept Bible print jobs in violation of these regulations shall be punished as engaging in illegal publishing. Those who violate the criminal law, should be sent to the judicial departments to be held criminally responsible."[54]
Needless to say, receiving and distributing imported Bibles is "illegal". But purchasing Bibles from authorized printers can also provoke repression, as the following case indicates: "One of the Sichuan home church leaders made a trip to Amity Press in Nanjing, ordered and paid for 400 Bibles. They were shipped to Chongqing, Sichuan Province in care of the local Three-Self Church. When they went to pick them up, they were questioned at length as to their involvement in unregistered churches. The TSPM church eventually delivered the Bibles to them, but within a few weeks the house church they were involved with was raided by the [PSB], the people arrested and fined. This happened in April 1992."[55]
More recently, after the Archbishop of Canterbury had declared that people smuggling Bibles into Red China were causing mischief because authorized printing firms had "churned out" two million copies the previous year, the Chinese Church Research Center commented in October 1994: "There is currently a great famine of Bibles in [mainland] China. Believers who send money to Nanjing to buy Bibles do not get shipment, and the waiting list can last over six months, or never get any reply."[56] It was also in 1994 that the Center criticized Ned Graham, son of Billy Graham, for claiming that he was free to distribute hundreds of thousands of Bibles in the PRC. "These claims do not seem to match with realities that are reported by believers in China or Christian travelers visiting Christians in China", the Center reacted. "Many Christians who wish to purchase Bibles from TSPM churches are told that there are no Bibles available. Overseas travelers who visit TSPM churches find that on average about 70% of the time Bibles are not available for sale in TSPM churches."[57] Obviously, the communist authorities have made the most of the Grahams' endeavors in mainland China. The propaganda value of Billy Graham's preaching in Beijing was surely not lost on them, for Beijing Review, in its feature article on Bishop Ting, mentioned the event as proof that religious life in the PRC was normal. The many misfortunes of humble believers are less spectacular than a televangelist's appearance but truer to religious life in Red China. Chu Peiqing, for instance, was "arrested in Langfeng, Hebei Province in October 1994 and sentenced to a year's imprisonment for transporting Bibles and other religious materials". Chu "was held in a Langfeng labor camp". It could only be presumed, in December 1995, "that he was released after completing his term".[58]
Wholesale denial is Beijing's official response to concerns about religious persecutions in mainland China. "No one in our country has been detained or forced to undergo reeducation through labor because he or she believed in a religion, or failed to register as a religious believer", claimed Ye Xiaowen, director of the central RAB, on January 24,1996. "There are, however, religious believers in our prisons. Nonetheless, their detainment had nothing to do with the fact that they believe in religion, but instead resulted from the fact that they violated state law." But by Ye's own admission, the regime demands that Catholics spurn some of the tenets of their religion: "Religious believers enjoy equal rights and bear the same obligations as other citizens, and are duty-bound to follow the state family planning policy." Is it possible for a sincere Christian not to violate state law? The net in which the state may decide to catch them is incredibly wide: "Normal religious activities in [mainland] China are protected by law. However, activities which take advantage of religion to endanger the health and well-being of the people, damage the country's sovereignty and subvert the state's political power are banned."[59]
What the faithful are living through in Red China is a totalitarian nightmare. Chinese communist sources openly paint this situation in what appears the blackest of colors to any lucid observer: "The principle of 'unity and cooperation in politics and mutual respect in ideological beliefs' advanced by President Jiang Zemin have won the universal support of religious circles. They support the leadership of the Chinese Government and the socialist system. The Chinese Government, on its part, supports and encourages the masses of religious believers to actively participate in socialist construction. [...] The masses of religious believers support the leadership of the Communist Party and the socialist system, actively participate in the modernization drive, and in so doing have made great contributions to implementing the religious policy, safeguarding social stability and national unity, promoting the reunification of the mother land and developing friendly international exchanges. All religions in China have now embarked on a road based on adapting and coordinating their own development to the socialist system."[60]
Christians in mainland China who wish to worship without interference from the communist Big Brother are suffering. Clerics are routinely harassed and sometimes have been murdered in the police's hands. And nobody seems to care in high places in Canada, a country which shows generosity only to the torturers and thereby forgets its Christian roots.
When asked about the two Chinese bishops assassinated in less than six months in 1991-1992, the Canadian Conference of Catholic Bishops would be content to state that it could not "deal with every specific situation" in the world, "even less individual situations". In the opinion of the Conference's spokesman, the Catholic Church's condition in the PRC was "so complex and fluid that even the most knowledgeable people have to continuously update their information" in order to "avoid falling into the trap of simplistic analyses".[61 ]
This non-position was elicited only a few days before Prime Minister Jean Chretien began an official visit to the PRC (November 5-10, 1994) a visit shamefully focused on the short-term gains of some business interests.
*** Notes

1. China: The Untold Story, 2nd Edition (January 1995), Mississauga, The Voice of the Martyrs, 45 pp. Quotation from p. 11.
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2. Ibid., p. 14.
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3. Human Rights Watch/Asia, Vol. 7, No. 16, December 1995, p. 3.
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4. Newsletter No. 199607 of the PRC's Embassy to the United States.
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5. Human Rights Watch/Asia, Vol. 7, No. 16, December 1995, p. 7.
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6. Newsletter No. 199607 of the PRC's Embassy to the United States.
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7. Christian Anti-Communism Crusade, September 1, 1994, p. 2.
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8. Human Rights Watch/Asia, Vol. 7, No. 16, December 1995, p. 7.
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9. Ibid., Vol. 6, No. 6, June 1994, p. 5.
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10. Human Rights Watch/Asia, Vol. 7, No. 16, December 1995, p. 40.
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11. China: The Untold Story, p. 11.
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12. Human Rights Watch/Asia, Vol. 7, No. 16, December 1995, p. 13.
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13. Ibid., p. 26.
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14. Ibid., p. 19.
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15. China: The Untold Story, p. 41.
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16. Ibid., pp. [42] and [44].
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17. Human Rights Watch/Asia, Vol. 7, No. 16, December 1995, p. 7-8.
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18. Ibid., p. 9.
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19. China: The Untold Story. p. 27.
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20. Ibid., p. 24.
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21. Human Rights Watch/Asia, Vol. 6, No. 6, June 1994.
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22. Ibid., Vol. 7, No. 16, December 1995, p. 7.
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23. The U.S. Catholic Conference has provided the author with a copy of this letter.
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24. China: The Untold Story, p. 11.
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25. Ibid., p. 4.
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26. Ibid., p. 8 .
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27. U.S. Catholic Conference, press release, May 24, 1994.
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28. Human Rights Watch/Asia, Vol. 7, No. 16, December 1995, p. 6.
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29. Ibid., p. 3.
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30. China: The Untold Story, pp. 36-37.
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31. Ibid., pp. 3 and 34-35.
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32. Ibid.
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33. Human Rights Watch/Asia, Vol. 7, No. 16, December 1995, p. 16.
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34. China: The Untold Story p. 26.
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35. Human Rights Watch/Asia, Vol. 7, No. 16, December 1995, p. 17.
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36. Ibid., p. 26.
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37. Ibid.
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38. Ibid.
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39. Ibid., p. 27.
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40. Ibid., pp. 25-26.
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41. Ibid., p. 27.
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42. Ibid., p. 25.
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43. Ibid., p. 26.
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44. Ibid., p. 18.
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45. Ibid.
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46. Ibid., p. 22.
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47. Ibid.
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48. Ibid., p. 23.
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49. Ibid.
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50. Ibid.
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51. Ibid.
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52. China Rights Forum, Spring 1996, p. 33.
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53. Human Rights Watch/Asia, Dec. 1995, p. 23.
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54. Ibid., pp. 43-44
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55. China: The Untold Story, p. 9.
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56. Ibid., p. 37.
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57. Ibid., p. 25.
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58. Human Rights Watch/Asia, Vol. 7, No. 16, December 1995, p. 25.
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59. "Official in Charge of Religious Affairs on Human Rights", Newsletter No. 199608 of the PRC's Embassy to the United States.
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60. "Chinese Religion and Religious Policy", Ibid., No. 199607.
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61. Letter to the author from the Canadian Conference of Catholic Bishops, October 31, 1994 (AT).
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"FEEDING THE RED DRAGON includes the following chapters:
Introduction: The Deceptive Peace
The book also contains two statistical tables and two maps."

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