Eastern Turkestan Information Bulletin Vol. 4 No. 4
Published by Eastern Turkestan Union in Europe
Eastern Turkestan Information Bulletin Vol. 4 No. 4 (October 1994)
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CHINESE NUCLEAR TEST CONDEMNED
The Eastern Turkestani Union in Europe has issued the following statement
condemning the Chinese nuclear test on October 7 at Lop Nor in Eastern
Since October 16, 1964, 41 nuclear tests, 22 in the atmosphere and 19
underground, have been conducted at Lop Nor. Prior to the October test the
most recent one was on June 10, 1994.
China's nuclear testing in Eastern Turkestan for almost three decades has
produced an ecological disaster not only endangering human life, but
polluting drinking water and food supplies and affecting millions of animals
throughout the country.
There are no official figures on the number of nuclear victims in Eastern
Turkestan, but countrymen from various parts of the country have reported
that almost 210,000 people in Eastern Turkestan have died due to radioactive
Fallout from the nuclear test site at Lop Nor is causing an increase in
human cancer. The fallout affects not only Eastern Turkestan, but
neighboring countries of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan.
Peaceful demonstrations by the peoples of Eastern Turkestan living at home
or abroad demanding the closure of Lop Nor test site and an end to all
nuclear testing have so far achieved no results.
ANNIVERSARY OF ISLAM IN EASTERN TURKESTAN
Eastern Turkestan this year celebrates several anniversaries, some happy and
some not so happy. Among the happiest is the 1,060th anniversary of the
introduction of Islam to Eastern Turkestan.
The peoples of Eastern Turkestan embraced Islam in 934 AD during the reign
of Satuk Bughra Khan of the Karakhanid Dynasty. This ruler took the Islamic
name of Abdulkarim. Abdulkarim Satuk Bughra Khan was the first Turkic ruler
in Central Asia to embrace Islam. Eastern Turkestan then became one of the
most important centers of Islamic architecture, culture and civilization.
Hundreds of Mosques were built. In the ancient city of Kashgar alone there
were six large Madrasahs accommodating 5,000 students. Hundreds of students
from various parts of the Islamic world came here to study. The Mesud-i
Library, built in the 15th century, had a collection of almost 200,000
books. One of the first translations of the Koran was done in Kashgar in the
12th century. After embracing Islam the Turkic Muslims of Eastern Turkestan
dropped the usage of the traditional Uighur script and adapted the Arabic
alphabet. This period produced numerous Turkic Muslim scholars such as
Mahmud Kashgari, Yusuf Has Hakip, Ahmet Yukuneki and others. The high level
of literary output in the eleventh century included the Divan-i, Lugat-i
Turk, Kutaku Bilik, Atabetul Hakayik and others. This Turkic Muslim
civilization, which dominated central Asia for almost 1,000 years, went into
a steep decline after the Chinese Communist occupation of Eastern Turkestan.
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45TH ANNIVERSARY OF CHINESE OCCUPATION
Eastern Turkestanis living abroad staged demonstrations, gatherings and
meetings to condemn the 45th anniversary of the Chinese Communist occupation
of Eastern Turkestan.
Chinese Communists occupied Eastern Turkestan on October 13, 1949.
Throughout Eastern Turkestan the Chinese Communist authorities have
organized celebrations to mark the 45th anniversary of the so-called
'peaceful liberation' of Eastern Turkestan. The peoples of Eastern
Turkestan, who are trying to free themselves from Chinese Communist rule,
have very little to celebrate.
In this connection Eastern Turkestani leader Isa Yusuf Alptekin held a press
conference in Istanbul, Turkey, on the occasion of the Chinese Communist
occupation of Eastern Turkestan. "At present out peoples at home are in a
hopeless situation." Alptekin told the press conference. "They feel that the
world at large is indifferent to their fate and has forgotten that they,
too, are human beings, a part of the world community, and have contributed
to the enrichment of world civilization. The concern of the international
community for the plight of our peoples and support for the legitimate
rights of the people of Eastern Turkestan would give them renewed hope. It
would also remind China that the international community cares about our
peoples and will hold China accountable for their suppression."
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Countrymen visiting their relatives abroad have reported demonstrations in
the cities of Urumchi, Kashgar, Aksu, Kumul and Gulja on the eve of the 45th
anniversary of the Chinese Communist occupation. According to the reports,
the demonstrators attacked local government buildings and shouted slogans
such as, "End to Chinese Rule", "Freedom for Eastern Turkestan", and
"Chinese Occupiers Leave the Country". During the demonstrations, local
Chinese security forces fired into the air and used tear gas to disperse the
demonstrators. According to eye-witnesses many 'ring-leaders' were arrested.
Visiting Eastern Turkestanis have also reported that fierce anti-Chinese
demonstrations have been taking place throughout the country since May 1994.
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UN EXAMINES ARBITRARY DETENTIONS
A United nations Working Group on Detention has begun an investigation of
arbitrary detentions in prisons in Eastern Turkestan. The Working Group has
already submitted a list of prisoners of conscience and torture victims to
the Chinese government for comment.
Since 1990 Chinese authorities have stepped up arbitrary arrests, executions
and persecution in order to intimidate the peoples of Eastern Turkestan. The
situation has been documented in various reports by governments and
international organizations. The Eastern Turkestani Union in Europe has been
working to bring these cases to the attention of the Human Rights Commission
and other sub-commissions of the UN.
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ORGANIZATIONS UNITE THEIR EFFORTS
It has been reported that after a secret meeting in Ghulja in late September
the five major organizations fighting for democracy, respect for human
rights and self-determination in Eastern Turkestan have unified their
the five major organizations are the Eastern Turkestan Islamic Party, the
Eastern Turkestan People's Revolutionary Party, the Eastern Turkestan
Independence Organization, the Eastern Turkestan Gray Wolf Party and the
Eastern Turkestan Liberation Front. These organizations were said to have
been set up in late 1970s and are supported by different categories of the
population of Eastern Turkestan. Until recently they had been operating
The Eastern Turkestan Islamic Party (Sharki Turkistan Islam Partiyesi),
based in the cities of Kashgar and Hoten, is supported mainly by religious
personalities, conservative forces and some farmers. The Eastern Turkestan
Revolutionary Party (Sharki Turkistan Inkalavi Partiyesi), in Urumchi and
Ghulja, is supported by intellectuals writers and progressive students. The
Eastern Turkestan Independence Organization (Sharki Turkistan Azatlik
Teshkilati) is centered in Hoten. It draws it's support mostly from young
farmers, unemployed Uighurs and young officials. The Eastern Turkestan Gray
Wolf Party (Sharki Turkistan Bozkurt Partiyesi) has it's center in Urumchi.
There is an epic which says that Uighurs are descended from a wolf. This
party, supported by young intellectuals, teachers and students, is said to
be Turkic-oriented. The Eastern Turkestan Liberation Front (Sharki Turkistan
Azatlik Fronti) is based in the cities of Turfan and Kumul and is supported
by unemployed Uighur youth, farmers and intellectuals.
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ERKIN ALPTEKIN IN KAZAKHSTAN AND KYRGYZSTAN
Erkin Alptekin, chairman of the Eastern Turkestani Union in Europe, visited
Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan in September. During his trip he met Uighur
intellectuals, scholars, students, businessmen and farmers.
Alptekin was given a warm welcome by Uighurs many of whom came to the Kazakh
capital Almaty from borders areas to meet him for the first time. Alptekin's
trip was aimed at encouraging the national aspirations of Uighurs living in
Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
There are presently almost 500,000 Uighur living in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan,
Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and Tajikistan. Almost 200,000 of them are in
Kazakhstan of whom a hundred thousand live in Almaty.
Alptekin had lengthy talks with Chairman Kahraman Gojamberdi and other
leaders of the Inter-State Uighur Union (Uygurlarning Devletlerara
Ittifaki), an umbrella organization of Uighur cultural organizations in the
Central Asian republics. The discussions resulted in a seven-point agreement
between the Eastern Turkestani union in Europe and the Ittifak. The
agreement aims to establish close cooperation between the two organizations
including establishment of an Eastern Turkestani fund and the foundation of
an International Eastern Turkestani Coordination Center.
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DEMONSTRATION IN KYRGYZSTAN
Uighurs living in Kyrgyzstan staged a protest in Bishkek on September 27 to
protest Chinese human rights abuses, arbitrary arrest and continued nuclear
tests in Eastern Turkestan. The demonstration, which took place in front of
the Chinese embassy in Bishkek, was protested by the Chinese Ambassador to
Kyrgyzstan Pan Chan Lin.
In his protest note to the Kyrgyzstan government Pan Chan Lin said that
"certain forces in Kyrgyzstan are harboring subversive aims against China."
He added that "this kind of subversive activity on the soil of Kyrgyzstan
will harm the warm friendship between Bishkek and Beijing.
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UIGHUR SCHOLAR LECTURES IN GERMANY
A young Uighur lady scholar, Nurnisa Ismailova, a professor at the Kazakh
State University at Almaty, Kazakhstan was invited to give a series of
lectures at German universities in Bamberg, Frankfurt, and Berlin.
In her presentations Prof. Ismailova elaborated the history of Uighur women.
She said that throughout history Uighur had not only raised children but had
also played active roles in political and even military affairs.
Prof. Ismailova, mentioned the examples of Uighur heroines Iparhan, Mayimhan,
Nazigum, who had not only been active rulers in Eastern Turkestan but has
also lead soldiers in the fight against Manchu-Chinese invasions in the 18th
and 19th centuries.
Iparhan was the wife of 18th century Eastern Turkestani ruler Jihangir
Khoja, After the death of her husband Iparhan lead the Uighur army against
an invading Manchu-Chinese force. She was later captured and taken to
Beijing. Instead of marrying the Manchu-Chinese emperor Chien Lung she
killed herself. Thus she is honored by the Uighurs as the Mother of Uighur
Pride. Pearl S. Buck's famous book A Slave at the Chinese Palace
was based on the story of Iparhan.
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SECOND WORLD TURKIC CONFERENCE
The Second World Turkic Friendship, Brotherhood and Cooperation Conference
was held in Izmir Turkey October 20-23. The conference, sponsored by Turkish
President Suleyman Demirel, included representatives from Turkic peoples
throughout the world. The aim of the gathering was to strengthen the
cooperation among Turkic peoples, to spread democratic ideas, uphold the
principles of respect for human rights and oppose all forms of
Eastern Turkestani leader Isa Yusuf Alptekin was invited to address the
conference. He discussed the plight of the peoples of Eastern Turkestan and
said, "Compared with other Turkic peoples in the world, the peoples of
Eastern Turkestan are in a very bad situation. They are faced with the
danger of total assimilation. It is the responsibility of the independent
Turkic states to prevent the disappearance of the peoples of Eastern
Turkestan from the historical scene. Thus, it is very important for the
independent Turkic states to work out a common strategy to achieve this
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FIRST INTERNATIONAL ALLIED COMMITTEE CONFERENCE
The First International Conference of the Allied Committee of the Peoples of
Eastern Turkestan, Tibet, and Inner Mongolia was held in New York, at the
Columbia University, on October 16. Representatives of the peoples of
Eastern Turkestan, Tibet and Inner Mongolia, officials of the US
administration, members of the US Congress, media representatives and more
than 100 guests attended the meeting.
Rinchen Darlo, New York representative of His Holiness the Dalai Lama opened
the conference reading messages from H.H the Dalai Lama and Isa Yusuf
Alptekin. Leader of the Eastern Turkestani people.
His Holiness the Dalai Lama expressed his support for the Allied Committee
in a message addressed to the New York conference. "Though Mongolians and
Tibetans share a common religion and religious heritage, our ties to the
people of Eastern Turkestan are no less. Our three peoples are tied together
by geography and history, and these days unfortunately by the Chinese
occupation of our countries.
"During the last few years we have seen momentous changes come to the world.
The Soviet empire has collapsed, and in its wake many formerly oppressed
nations have regained their freedom and independence... In view of these
changes, I remain optimistic that not too far in the future the true
aspirations of the peoples of Eastern Turkestan, Inner Mongolia and Tibet
will be fulfilled, and I am confident that the people of Eastern Turkestan,
Inner Mongolia and Tibet will contribute to peace, prosperity an stability
of not only China, but Asia as a whole."
In a message to the meeting from his home in Istanbul Isa Yusuf Alptekin
said," The peoples of Eastern Turkestan, Tibet and Inner Mongolia believe
that the United States is in a unique position to play an important role in
this matter. Therefore, I kindly request the people of the United States,
the United States Congress, the Administration and the press to give due ear
to the free voice of our peoples - the Allied Committee.
"I have devoted my entire life to bring the plight of my peoples to the
attention of the Free World. I am almost 95 years old, have lost my
eyesight, and God only knows how long I have to live. But one thing is very
clear to me: even if I pass away the Allied Committee under the leadership
of His Holiness the Dalai Lama, our common spokesman, my brother and my
sincere friend, will carry on the non-violent struggle of the peoples of
Eastern Turkestan, Tibet and Inner Mongolia with strong determination."
"Current chairman of the Allied Committee, Erkin Alptekin, reviewed the
history of the Allied Committee and outlined the major problems faced by the
three peoples. He urged the United States to try and persuade the Chinese
leadership to begin negotiations to mollify the tense situation in Eastern
Turkestan, Tibet and Inner Mongolia peacefully and to the mutual
satisfaction of all parties. Alptekin also called on the United Nations to
send a fact-finding mission to these areas to make a first-hand an objective
assessment of the situation. Alptekin also called on Chinese leaders to sit
down with representatives from Eastern Turkestan, Tibet and Inner Mongolia
in an effort to encourage stability and prosperity among the Chinese people
and freedom and happiness among the peoples of these three countries.
Foreign Minister Tenzing Tethong of the Exile Government of Tibet and the
President of Inner Mongolia League for Defense of Human Rights, Shobsood
Temsiltu, gave accounts of the situation in their respective countries.
The conference included panel discussions, "China's Policy Towards
Non-Chinese People" and "A Focus on the Major Issues and Problems Faced by
the Three Peoples". Among the speakers were Prof. James Seymore of Columbia
University, Professor Yan Jia-qi of Columbia University, Prof. Robert
Thurman, of Columbia University, Dr. Shevket Karaduman, president of the
Federation of Turkish American Associations, Shobsood Temsiltu, Inner
Mongolian representative, Omer Kanat, representative of Eastern Turkestan
and Gyaltsen Gyaltag, representative of H.H. the Dalai Lama in Europe.
In a panel discussion Kanat described Chinese transfer of population into
Eastern Turkestan and said that Chinese Communist leaders were attempting to
assimilate the Turkic peoples of Eastern Turkestan and eliminate their
culture in order to transform the country into a Chinese province. This, he
said, was being done by offering special benefits for new Chinese settlers.
This has brought hunger, unemployment and misery to the Turkic peoples. Such
policies, said Kanat, violated internationally accepted standards of human
rights, including the Eastern Turkestani people's rights to
Workshops discussed such topics as "Population Transfer", "China's Economic
Policy in Eastern Turkestan, Tibet and Inner Mongolia" and "How Exile
Communities Can More Effectively Help Those At Home." The conference was
closed by Lodi Gyari, Special Envoy of H.H. the Dalai Lama in Washington.
Representatives of Eastern Turkestan, Tibet and Inner Mongolia also
discussed letters to be sent to US President Bill Clinton, UN Secretary
Boutros Boutros-Ghali, and Chinese President Jiang Zemin.
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EASTERN TURKESTAN LOBBY IN WASHINGTON
During a visit to Washington October 17-21 Erkin Alptekin, chairman of the
Eastern Turkestani Union in Europe, together with Tibetan representatives
raised issues of human rights abuses in Eastern Turkestan with US
Congressional staff members, US State Department officials and
representatives of international organizations.
At a meeting in the US Capitol building Alptekin met with staff members of
Senators Pell, Helms and Moyhihan and Representatives Unsoeld, Lantos,
Porter, Berman, and Gilman. In other meetings Alptekin discussed the
situation of Eastern Turkestan with David Phillips, president of the
Congressional Human Rights Foundation, David Little and Scott Hibbers,
representatives of US Institute of Peace, Mike Jendryzyk, representative of
Asia Watch, Louisa Cohan, representative of the National Endowment for
Democracy and John Foarde of the State Department's Office of Chinese and
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CHINA ACCUSED OF TRADE IN ORGANS
According to a report released by Human Rights watch in August, up to 3,000
organs from executed prisoners, mostly kidneys and corneas, are taken each
year in China for use in transplants.
The US-based human rights organization said that the consent of prisoners
was rarely sought, some executions have been deliberately bungled so that
convicts are alive when their organs are removed, and there was a big risk
that innocent people would be wrongfully executed and become organ donors.
The report said that a Hong Kong transplant specialist had stated that all
the patients he had referred for operations in China had received prisoners'
organs. A Hon Kong millionaire reportedly received a convict's kidney by
donating about 100,000 Pounds to a Chinese hospital.
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In an article on August 3 entitled "Can the Uighurs Pierce the Great Wall ?"
the Russian newspaper Komsomoloskaya Pravda wrote the following:
"...Recently our correspondent had the opportunity to interview 14 Uighur
youth who fled from the Chinese prisons in Xinjiang and are hiding somewhere
in Central Asia. They claimed that they had been arrested after being
accused of taking part in the Baren uprising in 1990. According to their
information the general situation in Eastern Turkestan is very bad. Their
spokesman, who did not want to be identified, said that since September 8,
1993, anti-Chinese demonstrations, armed resistance and bombings have been
taking place throughout Xinjiang, which he called 'Eastern Turkestan.' He
said that today 'Eastern Turkestan cannot gain it's freedom through peaceful
means'. According to the spokesman Chinese authorities did not understand
what 'peaceful means' were. He claimed that the only language they
understood was force against force. He said that in the last 45 years Uighur
leaders, scholars, intellectuals, teachers, students, farmers, etc. had
tried to convince Chinese authorities that the people of Eastern Turkestan
were not slaves and the Chinese not slave drivers and cannot rule the
country through slavery. He said that peoples of Eastern Turkestan had tried
to make it clear to the Chinese authorities that without listening to the
grievances of the people, without respecting their dignity and without
giving them greater freedom Chinese rule could not be accepted. He said that
Chinese authorities had responded by arresting, torturing and executing
those who had spoken up. The Uighur spokesman claimed that the great
majority of young people in Eastern Turkestan had come to the conclusion that
the only language the Chinese authorities understood was force.'
The following excerpts appeared in the Wall Street Journal on
'...Now that former Soviet republics of Central Asia are independent, Muslim
separatists in China's westernmost Xinjiang Autonomous Region are calling
for independence too...'
'...The separatist movement in Xinjiang, while still small, presents new
problems for China in its most remote border regions; Beijing already faces
dissent in Tibet, to the south of Xinjiang...'
'...In Xinjiang's major cities, police and paramilitary forces maintain a
visible presence. Armed soldiers guard bridges and government
'...Besides extreme acts such as bombings, Xinjiang's separatists promote
their cause through distribution of brochures advocating establishment of an
independent 'Eastern Turkestan'...'
Germany's Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung on October 21 wrote of the
Allied Committee in New York aimed at strengthening the coordination among
Tibetans, Mongols, and Uighurs in China in anticipation of possible
instability after the death of Deng Xiaoping. The paper wrote: 'A
representative of the Han Chinese dominated 'Federation for a Democratic
China' offered the representatives of the national minorities his vision of
a transformed country. China's system must be decentralized. He did not,
however, offer a picture of complete independence. This question has for
sometime provoked conflict among various opposition groups in China'.
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The aim of the Eastern Turkestan Information Bulletin is to disseminate objective current information on the people, culture and civilization of Eastern Turkestan and to provide a forum for discussion on a wide range of topics and complex issues. ETIB is published bi-monthly by the Eastern Turkestani Union in Europe(ETUE), established January 11, 1991 in Munich, Germany. Neither ETIB nor ETUE claim or accept responsibility for views otherwise identified within our pages. We hope that those using information from our publication in published works will be courteous enough to cite its source. All inquiries and contributions should be addressed to Eastern Turkestan Information Bulletin, Asgar Can, Editor, St. Blasien Str. 2, D-80809 Munich, Germany.
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Last updated 06/29/99